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Major rulers petty monarchs during the times of the Barbary states' plundering parties included the Pasha or Dey of Algiers , the Bey of Tunis and the Bey of Tripoli.
Before then, the territory was usually divided between Ifriqiya , Morocco, and a west-central Algerian state centered on Tlemcen or Tiaret.
Powerful Berber dynasties such as the Almohads 12th century and briefly thereafter the Hafsids , occasionally unified it for short periods.
From a European perspective, Tripoli in modern-day Libya , was considered its capital or chief city—though Marrakesh in Morocco was the largest and most important Berber city at the time.
Some [ by whom? The first United States military land action overseas, executed by the U. It formed part of an effort to destroy all of the Barbary pirates, to free American slaves in captivity, and to put an end to piracy acts between these warring tribes on the part of the Barbary states, which were themselves member states of the Ottoman Empire.
The opening line of the Marines' Hymn refers to this action: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Barbary Coast disambiguation.
For other uses, see Barbary disambiguation. It has been suggested that this article be merged into Tamazgha. However, the ships and coasts of Christian states without such effective protection continued to suffer until the early 19th century.
Following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna in —15, European powers agreed upon the need to suppress the Barbary corsairs entirely and the threat was largely subdued.
Occasional incidents occurred, including two Barbary wars between the United States and the Barbary States, until finally terminated by the French conquest of Algiers in Piracy by Muslim populations had been known in the Mediterranean since at least the 9th century and the short-lived Emirate of Crete.
Provence was plagued by Saracen slave raids in the Carolingian era ; in , archbishop Rotlandus of Arles was captured, and died before he could be released after the payment of a ransom in weapons, treasure and slaves.
In the problem of Berber piracy and slave-taking was so great that a religious order, the Trinitarians , were founded to collect ransoms and even to exchange themselves as ransom for those captured and pressed into slavery in North Africa.
In the 14th century Tunisian corsairs became enough of a threat to provoke a Franco-Genoese attack on Mahdia in , also known as the " Barbary Crusade ".
Morisco exiles of the Reconquista and Maghreb pirates added to the numbers, but it was not until the expansion of the Ottoman Empire and the arrival of the privateer and admiral Kemal Reis in that the Barbary corsairs became a true menace to shipping from European Christian nations.
They had been attacking English merchant and passengers ships since the s. Regular fundraising for ransoms was undertaken generally by families and local church groups, who generally raised the ransoms for individuals.
The government did not ransom ordinary persons. The English became familiar with captivity narratives written by Barbary pirates' prisoners and ransomed captives, as so many people were taken.
After English colonists began to go to North America and be taken captive by Native Americans , both the colonists and people in England had some basis for considering the meaning of captivity for a Christian in an alien society.
During the American Revolution the pirates attacked American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean. But, on December 20, , Sultan Mohammed III of Morocco declared that American merchant ships would be under the protection of the sultanate and could thus enjoy safe passage into the Mediterranean and along the coast.
In Morocco became the first nation to recognize the new United States. As late as , an islet near Sardinia was attacked by the Tunisians , and more than inhabitants were taken away as slaves.
The coast was ideal for their wants and needs. With natural harbours often backed by lagoons, it provided a haven for guerrilla warfare, such as attacks on shipping vessels venturing through their territory.
On the coast, mountainous areas provided ample reconnaissance for the corsairs as well. Ships were spotted from afar; the pirates had time to prepare their attacks and surprise the ships.
In response, Spain began to conquer the coastal towns of Oran , Algiers and Tunis. From to , they were ruled by Ottoman pashas , sent from Constantinople to govern for three years; but in the latter year a military revolt in Algiers reduced the pashas to nonentities.
From , these African cities, although nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, were in fact military republics that chose their own rulers and lived by war booty captured from the Spanish and Portuguese.
There are several cases of Sephardic Jews , including Sinan Reis and Samuel Pallache , who upon fleeing Iberia turned to attacking the Spanish Empire's shipping under the Ottoman flag, a profitable strategy of revenge for the Inquisition 's religious persecution.
During the first period — , the beylerbeys were admirals of the sultan, commanding great fleets and conducting war operations for political ends.
They were slave-hunters and their methods were ferocious. After , the sole object of their successors became plunder, on land and sea. The maritime operations were conducted by the captains, or reises , who formed a class or even a corporation.
Cruisers were fitted out by investors and commanded by the reises. Ten percent of the value of the prizes was paid to the pasha or his successors, who bore the titles of agha or dey or bey.
In Hayreddin captured the island of Ischia , taking 4, prisoners, and enslaved some 2,—7, inhabitants of Lipari.
In corsairs under Turgut Reis sacked Vieste , beheaded 5, of its inhabitants, and abducted another 6, In , Barbary corsairs captured the town of Ciutadella Minorca , destroyed it, murdered many inhabitants, and took 3, to Constantinople as slaves.
Barbary corsairs often attacked the Balearic Islands , and in response many coastal watchtowers and fortified churches were erected.
The threat was so severe that residents abandoned the island of Formentera. Even at this early stage, the European states fought back: Another response was the construction of the original frigates ; light, fast and maneuverable galleys, designed to run down Barbary corsairs trying to get away with their loot and slaves.
Other measures included coastal lookouts to give warning for people to withdraw into fortified places and rally local forces to fight the corsairs.
This latter goal was especially difficult to achieve as the corsairs had the advantage of surprise; the vulnerable European Mediterranean coasts were very long and easily accessible from the north African Barbary bases, and the corsairs were careful in planning their raids.
During the first half of the 17th century, Barbary raiding was at its peak. This was due largely to the contribution of Dutch corsairs, notably Zymen Danseker Simon de Danser , who used the Barbary ports as bases for attacking Spanish shipping during the Dutch Revolt.
They cooperated with local raiders and introduced them to the latest Dutch sailing rigs, enabling them to brave Atlantic waters.
Both worked for the notorious Dutch corsair Zymen Danseker. A notable counter action occurred in , when the Knights of Saint Stephen under Jacopo Inghirami sacked Bona in Algeria, killing and taking 1, captives.
They also occurred on the Atlantic northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula as in , when the North African corsairs launched their major attack in the region.
Occasionally coastal raids reached farther afield. Iceland was subject to raids in Jan Janszoon Murat Reis the Younger is said to have taken prisoners; of the captives later were sold into slavery on the Barbary Coast.
The corsairs took only young people and those in good physical condition. All those offering resistance were killed, and the old people were gathered into a church which was set on fire.
Upon returning to Iceland, he wrote an account about his experience. Such captivity narratives by Europeans who had been held in Muslim states eventually constituted a literary genre.
Ireland was subject to a similar attack. They captured almost all the villagers and took them away to a life of slavery in North Africa.
Only two of these captives ever returned to Ireland. More than 20, captives were said to be imprisoned in Algiers alone. The rich were often able to secure release through ransom, but the poor were condemned to slavery.
Their masters would on occasion allow them to secure freedom by professing Islam. A long list might be given of people of good social position, not only Italians or Spaniards, but German or English travelers in the south, who were captives for a time.
Barbary piracy thrived on the competition among European powers. France encouraged the corsairs against Spain, and later Britain and Holland supported them against France.
By the second half of the 17th century, the greater European naval powers were able to strike back effectively enough to intimidate the Barbary States into making peace with them.
However, those countries' commercial interests benefited by the pirates continuing attacks on their competitors. As a result, they did not cooperate to impose a more general cessation of corsair activity.
England was the most successful of the Christian states in dealing with the corsair threat. A particular bone of contention was the tendency of foreign ships to pose as English to avoid attack.
However, growing English naval power and increasingly persistent operations against the corsairs proved increasingly costly for the Barbary States.
During the reign of Charles II a series of English expeditions won victories over raiding Barbary squadrons and mounted attacks on their home ports; these actions permanently ended the Barbary threat to English shipping.
Algiers, the most powerful of the Barbary States [ citation needed ] , returned to war the following year, breaking a treaty made in After suffering defeats at the hands of an English squadron under Arthur Herbert , Algiers made peace again in , in a treaty that lasted until France, which had recently emerged as a leading naval power, achieved comparable success soon afterwards.
It bombarded Algiers in , and to secure a lasting peace, and forced Tripoli to sue for peace by bombardment in A study found that Barbary corsairs were less militarily powerful after than they were at the start of the seventeenth century.
Piracy was enough of a problem that some states entered into the redemption business. In Denmark, "At the beginning of the 18th century money was collected systematically in all churches, and a so called 'slave fund' slavekasse was established by the state in Funds were brought in through a compulsory insurance sum for seafarers.
In the late 18th century piracy began to arise again. Three basic buttons are designed in the form of barrels. To set the number of paylines, use the Select Lines button.
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When looting San Francisco's neighborhoods, the Sydney Ducks even set fire to San Francisco six times between and in order to distract citizens from their pillaging and murdering.
The citizens of San Francisco became enraged and in they formed a first Vigilance Committee. The vigilantes then held a quick trial, and later hanged them.
Within two weeks after the hangings, Sidney Town had but only a few dance halls, saloons, and brothels remaining.
In the latter half of the 19th century, San Francisco saw administrative graft, boss politics, and a persistent lawlessness. This new competency in government would not last long, and by corrupt government officials developed a system of high salaries and expensive projects with political kickbacks that would drain the city's treasury to near bankruptcy.
The looting of the city's treasury could not have happened without the help of the most powerful man in San Francisco, David Broderick , who was a state senator and held tight control over San Francisco from until his death in As news of the treasury's financial crisis became known, another even larger uprising of enraged citizenry would occur.
James King, a popular journalist and publisher, vehemently protested the administrative graft of Broderick which angered one of Broderick's biggest supporters, a supervisor named James Casey.
While King was standing in front of his newspaper's building Casey shot King in the chest, causing a mortal wound which would ultimately launch the formation of a second Vigilance Committee in May King's funeral attracted over 15, people, but by the time the funeral had ended Casey had already been convicted and hanged by the vigilantes.
It was not until the s when sailors gave the district its name, and began to refer to it as the Barbary Coast. That African region was also notorious for the same kind of predatory dives which would target sailors, as had been done on San Francisco's Barbary Coast.
During its early days San Francisco had become a "wide" open city where police had little to no control in stopping the activities of gambling, drinking, drag, and Prostitution.
The Barbary Coast is the haunt of the low and the vile of every kind. The petty thief, the house burglar, the tramp, the whoremonger , lewd women, cutthroats, murderers, all are found here.
Dance-halls and concert-saloons, where blear-eyed men and faded women drink vile liquor, smoke offensive tobacco, engage in vulgar conduct, sing obscene songs and say and do everything to heap upon themselves more degradation, are numerous.
Low gambling houses, thronged with riot-loving rowdies, in all stages of intoxication, are there. Opium dens , where heathen Chinese and God-forsaken men and women are sprawled in miscellaneous confusion, disgustingly drowsy or completely overcome, are there.
Licentiousness, debauchery, pollution, loathsome disease, insanity from dissipation, misery, poverty, wealth, profanity, blasphemy, and death, are there.
And Hell, yawning to receive the putrid mass, is there also. During this time San Francisco went through much commercial growth and became an important shipping port, but matured to a level which would forbid any more uprisings by vigilantes.
At that time Police Chief Crowley said in his annual report that there was only one officer for every 1, inhabitants, while New York City had one in and London had one for every residents.
Entertaining the miners, entrepreneurs, and sailors would be a huge business and resulted in varied, inventive, and occasionally bizarre forms of entertainment.
Initially the melodeons had mechanical reed organs which played music, however they quickly transformed into a kind of cabaret which had theatrical entertainment but no dance floor.
Their shows usually contained songs, bawdy skits, and often featured can-can dancers. The deadfalls were the lowest of the establishments and had hard benches, damp sawdust on the floors, the bar was rough boards laid atop of barrels, had no entertainment, and their wine was often raw alcohol with an added coloring.
The Coast as it was called, also invented its own kind of dance hall, called a Barbary Coast Dance Hall. Lawlessness was so bad in the Barbary Coast district that police did not patrol alone, but chose to walk their beats in pairs and sometimes in groups.
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