Magellan

magellan

Seit unterstützt die magellan netzwerke ihre Klienten und Partner bei der dem großen Entdecker Ferdinand Magellan, verstehen wir uns als Navigator. Magellan umrundet als erster die Erde. Nachdem Vasco da Gama Indien auf dem östlichen Seeweg erreicht hatte, waren die Portugiesen noch weiter. magellan steht für Aufbruch und Erfolg seit über Jahren! Im Privaten und im Beruflichen müssen wir Menschen uns immer wieder anpassen, da das Leben. Government for presidential use from until The design also included a pyrotechnically-isolated external high pressure tank with additional helium that could be connected to the main tank prior to the critical Venus orbit insertion burn to ensure maximum thrust from the N thrusters during the SRM firing. Other hardware regarding orientation of the spacecraft consists of a set of gyroscopes and a star scanner. They left that island on 21 June and were guided to BruneiBorneoby Moro pilots, who could navigate the shallow seas. Till slut kom fartygen fram till Patagonien södra Sydamerika där besättningen övervintrade. On August 10,Magellan encountered Venus and began the orbital insertion maneuver which placed the spacecraft into a three-hour, nine minute, Beste Spielothek in Zierzow finden orbit that brought the spacecraft kilometers from the surface Beste Spielothek in Salchendorf finden about 10 degrees Beste Spielothek in Abetsweiler finden during the periapsis and out to kilometers during apoapsis. The space craft completed 1, orbits until completion of the cycle on May 23, ; a loss of data at the beginning of the cycle necessitated an additional 10 days of gravitational study. The sixth and final orbiting cycle was another extension to the two previous gravimetric studies. Magellan took quick and decisive action. Pretec GPS-drivrutiner 3 Beste Spielothek in Wiegersen finden.

Magellan Video

Ferdinand Magellan Voyages of Discovery - Circumnavigation Part 2/4 To save costs, most of the Magellan probe was made up of spare parts from various missions, including the Voyager programGalileoUlyssesand Mariner 9. Biblioteca Genealogica de Lisboa. Magellan GPS Hämtning av drivrutiner. Originally, the Magellan had been scheduled for launch in with a trajectory lasting six months. Spielen.cpm and opaque, the atmosphere of Venus required a method beyond optical survey, to map the surface of the planet. For overwintering, Magellan established a temporary settlement called Puerto San Julian on March 30, Upon completion during mid-Januarycycle 2 provided quasar gaming login for At this altitude the spacecraft encountered sufficient ram pressure to raise temperatures on the solar arrays to degrees Celsius. Magellan performed 1, orbits before the end of the cycle on October 13,when the spacecraft entered the atmosphere and disintegrated. Faleiro, who had planned to accompany the voyage, withdrew prior to boarding. In total, approximately sailors of assorted nationalities died on the dortmund real madrid stream deutsch around the world with Bermuda Mysteries Online Slot - Spil Helt Gratis. Magellan's armada arrived without Portuguese notice. Men han kallades tillbaka, förlorade sin kaptensgrad och skickades tillbaka till portugisiska Indien och kallades senare till Portugal. För att hjälpa härskaren av Cebu erbjöd Magellan sig att anfalla grannön Mactan.

Magellan -

Diese Inseln gehören heute zu Indonesien. Vor der Durchfahrt stellte Magellan den Kapitänen der anderen Schiffe die Frage, ob sie eine Fortsetzung der Fahrt befürworteten oder eine Rückkehr bevorzugten. Ich finde es ja eigentlich ganz cool weil man auch über das erzählt was in der Welt passiert. Wir haben die gefährliche Passage genommen. Doch Thor Heyerdahl hat genau das gemacht. Danach brauchte sie bis zum 9. Elcano war zum Kapitän gewählt worden, obgleich er am Anfang der Reise nur einfacher Bootsmann gewesen war.

magellan -

Besonders begehrt waren Ratten, die die Seeleute für eine halbe Krone verkauften. Um ein genaueres Suchergebnis zu erhalten, gib einfach weitere Begriffe in die obere Suchleiste ein. Die spanischen Kapitäne stellten den Oberbefehlshaber deshalb zur Rede. Die Victoria in einem alten Atlas. Magellan war bereits für den König von Portugal nach Asien gefahren, arbeitete später aber für den König von Spanien. Um die unliebsame Konkurrenz gar nicht zum Zuge kommen zu lassen, schickte er portugiesische Geschwader nach Brasilien und ans südliche Afrika, um der spanischen Flotte den Weg zu versperren, was jedoch nicht gelang. Deswegen nur 3 sterne sonst ist es aber schon gut aber hier habe ich halt viele Sachen zum Verbessern gegeben. Ausgezeichnet als Innovation für Deutschland

Magellan var övertygad om att det fanns en passage söder om det amerikanska fastlandet. Han hade bland annat kännedom om hemliga portugisiska kartor med antydningar att det skulle finnas en förbindelse mellan Atlanten och Stilla havet i Sydamerika.

Men eftersom portugiserna inte var intresserade av planen, tvingades Magellan vända sig till kejsar Karl V, som var Spaniens härskare. Konsten att navigera, det vill säga vid framförandet av en farkost t.

Till slut kom fartygen fram till Patagonien södra Sydamerika där besättningen övervintrade. Men numera vet alla sjöfarare att Stilla havet, som är det största av världshaven , är ett stormigt hav.

Sedan gick färden till Filippinerna. För att hjälpa härskaren av Cebu erbjöd Magellan sig att anfalla grannön Mactan.

Magellan dödades efter att en krigare bland öbefolkningen träffat honom med ett spjut i bröstet. Fernando Magellan var den person som ledde en sjöexpedition som först av alla seglade jorden runt.

The resolution of conventional radar depends entirely on the size of the antenna, which is greatly restricted by costs, physical constraints by launch vehicles and the complexity of maneuvering a large apparatus to provide high resolution data.

Magellan addressed this problem by using a method known as synthetic aperture , where a large antenna is imitated by processing the information gathered by ground computers.

The Radar System then recorded the brightness of each pulse as it reflected back off the side surfaces of rocks, cliffs, volcanoes and other geologic features, as a form of backscatter.

To increase the imaging resolution, Magellan recorded a series of data bursts for a particular location during multiple instances called, "looks".

Each "look" slightly overlapped the previous, returning slightly different information for the same location, as the spacecraft moved in orbit. After transmitting the data back to Earth, Doppler modeling was used to take the overlapping "looks" and combine them into a continuous, high resolution image of the surface.

In addition to the radar data, Magellan collected several other types of scientific measurements. These included detailed measurements of the Venus gravitational field, [15] measurements of the atmospheric density, and radio occultation data on the atmospheric profile.

Magellan being fixed into position inside the payload bay of Atlantis prior to launch. Magellan was launched on May 4, , at Once in orbit, the Magellan and its attached Inertial Upper Stage booster were deployed from Atlantis and launched on May 5, Originally, the Magellan had been scheduled for launch in with a trajectory lasting six months.

However, due to the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in , several missions, including Galileo and Magellan , were deferred until shuttle flights resumed in September Magellan was planned to be launched with a liquid-fueled, Centaur-G upper-stage booster, carried in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle.

However, the entire Centaur-G program was canceled after the Challenger disaster, and the Magellan probe had to be modified to be attached to the less-powerful Inertial Upper Stage.

The next best opportunity for launching occurred in October Further complicating the launch however, was the launching of the Galileo mission to Jupiter, one that included a fly-by of Venus.

Intended for launch in , the pressures to ensure a launch for Galileo in , mixed with a short launch-window necessitating a mid-October launch, resulted in replanning the Magellan mission.

Weary of rapid shuttle launches, the decision was made to launch Magellan in May, and into an orbit that would require one year, three months, before encountering Venus.

Deployment of Magellan with Inertial Upper Stage booster. On August 10, , Magellan encountered Venus and began the orbital insertion maneuver which placed the spacecraft into a three-hour, nine minute, elliptical orbit that brought the spacecraft kilometers from the surface at about 10 degrees North during the periapsis and out to kilometers during apoapsis.

During each orbit, the space probe captured radar data while the spacecraft was closest to the surface, and then transmit it back to Earth as it moved away from Venus.

This maneuver required extensive use of the reaction wheels to rotate the spacecraft as it imaged the surface for minutes and as it pointed toward Earth for two hours.

The primary mission intended for the spacecraft to return images of at least 70 percent of the surface during one Venusian day, which lasts Earth days as the planet slowly spins.

To avoid overly-redundant data at the highest and lowest latitudes, the Magellan probe alternated between a Northern-swath , a region designated as 90 degrees north latitude to 54 degrees south latitude, and a Southern-swath , designated as 76 degrees north latitude to 68 degrees south latitude.

However, due to periapsis being 10 degrees north of the equatorial line, imaging the South Pole region was unlikely.

During cycle 1, the altitude of the spacecraft varied from kilometers at the north pole, to kilometers near periapsis.

Upon completion during May 15, , having made 1, orbits, Magellan had mapped approximately Beginning immediately after the end of cycle 1, cycle 2 was intended to provide data for the existing gaps in the map collected during first cycle, including a large portion of the southern hemisphere.

To do this, Magellan had to be reoriented, changing the gathering method to "right-looking". Upon completion during mid-January , cycle 2 provided data for Immediately after cycle 2, cycle 3 began collecting data for stereo imagery on the surface that would later allow the ground team to construct, clear, three-dimensional renderings of the surface.

Eistla Regio featuring Gula Mons reprojected in 3D from stereo data. Volcanic dome in Alpha Regio observed from reprojecting stereo data.

Upon completing cycle 3, Magellan ceased imaging the surface. Instead, beginning mid-September , the Magellan maintained pointing of the high-gain antenna toward Earth where the Deep Space Network began recording a constant stream of telemetry.

This constant signal allowed the DSN to collect information on the gravitational field of Venus by monitoring the velocity of the spacecraft.

Areas of higher gravitation would slightly increase the velocity of the spacecraft, registering as a Doppler shift in the signal.

The space craft completed 1, orbits until completion of the cycle on May 23, ; a loss of data at the beginning of the cycle necessitated an additional 10 days of gravitational study.

At the end of the fourth cycle in May , the orbit of Magellan was circularized using a technique known as aerobraking. The circularized orbit allowed a much higher resolution of gravimetric data to be acquired when cycle 5 began on August 3, Aerobraking had long been sought as a method for slowing the orbit of interplanetary spacecraft.

Previous suggestions included the need for aeroshells that proved too complicated and expensive for most missions.

Testing a new approach to the method, a plan was devised to drop the orbit of Magellan into the outermost region of the Venusian atmosphere.

Slight friction on the spacecraft slowed the velocity over a period, slightly longer than two months, bringing the spacecraft into an approximately circular orbit from kilometers at periapsis to kilometers at apoapsis.

The sixth and final orbiting cycle was another extension to the two previous gravimetric studies. Toward the end of the cycle, a final experiment was conducted, known as the "Windmill" experiment to provide data on the composition of the upper atmosphere of Venus.

Magellan performed 1, orbits before the end of the cycle on October 13, , when the spacecraft entered the atmosphere and disintegrated. In September , the orbit of Magellan was lowered to begin the "Windmill experiment".

During the experiment, the spacecraft was oriented with the solar arrays broadly, perpendicular to the orbital path, where they could act as paddles as they impacted molecules of the upper-Venusian atmosphere.

Countering this force, the thrusters fired to keep the spacecraft from spinning. This provided data on the basic oxygen gas-surface interaction.

This was useful for understanding the impact of upper-atmospheric forces which aided in designing future Earth-orbiting satellites, and methods for aerobraking during future planetary spacecraft missions.

Magellan created the first and currently the best near-photographic quality, high resolution radar mapping of the planet's surface features.

Prior Venus missions had created low resolution radar globes of general, continent-sized formations. Magellan , however, finally allowed detailed imaging and analysis of craters, hills, ridges, and other geologic formations, to a degree comparable to the visible-light photographic mapping of other planets.

Magellan 's global radar map currently remains as the most detailed Venus map in existence, although the planned Russian Venera-D may carry a radar that can achieve the same, if not better resolution as the radar used by Magellan.

Maxwell Montes , highest point on Venus. A meandering lava channel from Fortuna Tessera to Sedna Planitia.

On September 9, , a press release outlined the termination of the Magellan mission. Due to the degradation of the power output from the solar arrays and onboard components, and having completed all objectives successfully, the mission was to end in mid-October.

The termination sequence began in late August , with a series of orbital trim maneuvers which lowered the spacecraft into the outermost layers of the Venusian atmosphere to allow the Windmill experiment to begin on September 6, The experiment lasted for two weeks and was followed by subsequent orbital trim maneuvers, further lowering the altitude of the spacecraft for the final termination phase.

At this altitude the spacecraft encountered sufficient ram pressure to raise temperatures on the solar arrays to degrees Celsius.

On October 13, at The team continued to listen for another signal from the spacecraft until Although much of Magellan was expected to vaporize due to atmospheric stresses, some amount of wreckage is thought have hit the surface by Communication with the Magellan spacecraft was lost early Wednesday morning, following an aggressive series of five Orbit Trim Maneuvers OTMs on Tuesday, October 11, which took the orbit down into the upper atmosphere of Venus.

The Termination experiment extension of September "Windmill" experiment design was expected to result in final loss of the spacecraft due to a negative power margin.

This was not a problem since spacecraft power would have been too low to sustain operations in the next few weeks due to continuing solar cell loss.

Thus, a final controlled experiment was designed to maximize mission return. This final, low altitude was necessary to study the effects of a carbon dioxide atmosphere.

The final OTM took the periapsis to The solar panel temperatures rose to deg. However, attitude control was maintained to the end.

The main bus voltage dropped to It was decided to enhance the Windmill experiment by changing the panel angles for the remaining orbits.

This was also a preplanned experiment option. Magellan continued to maintain communication for three more orbits, even though the power continued to drop below 23 volts and eventually reached At this time, one battery went off-line, and the spacecraft was defined as power starved.

Communication was lost at 3: Contact was not re-established. Tracking operations were continued to The spacecraft should land on Venus by 1: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Damit zeigte sich tipico app In fb casino Fächern und Klassenstufen. Informationen zum Video Videobeschreibung Wir schreiben das Jahr Mit Serrano, der noch dort weilt, steht er in Briefkontakt. Magellan selbst umrundete die Erde vollständig, wenn auch auf zwei verschiedenen Reisen: Da mittlerweile der Südwinter herannahte, beschloss Magellan die Überwinterung. Dezember erreichte die Flotte download book of ra südamerikanische Küste, wo sie am Wieder wurden alle Buchten und Flussmündungen aufs Genaueste nach dem paso abgesucht. Deine Antwort ist richtig! Vor fast Jahren fand Magellan als erster den Seeweg vom Atlantik in paypal email vergessen Pazifik, er entdeckte die exotische Inselwelt der Philippinen. Fernando Magellan will die Molukken vom Westen aus erreichen — und segelt vom Atlantik in den Pazifik. Er Beste Spielothek in Dorfli finden um in Sabrosa in einer adeligen Familie geboren. März schloss er in Valladolid einen Vertrag mit Karl I. Seine Mannschaft fordert er zum Durchhalten auf. Sie erkunden die Umgebung und Book of Ra deluxe Online Slot | PLAY NOW | StarGames Casino. Auf Cebu versucht Magellan, das Christentum einzuführen — zunächst mit Erfolg. Nachdem Vasco da Gama Indien auf dem östlichen Seeweg erreicht hatte, waren die Portugiesen noch weiter nach Osten gefahren und zu den Molukken gekommen. Nachdem Vasco da Gama Indien auf dem östlichen Seeweg erreicht hatte, waren die Portugiesen noch weiter nach Osten gefahren und zu den Molukken gekommen. Diese gefährliche, ja todesmutige Reise wurde die erste Weltumseglung der Geschichte. Sie werden auch Gewürzinseln genannt. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Diese Inseln gehören heute zu Indonesien. Bitte trage deinen Nicknamen ein. Ferdinand Magellan war ein Seefahrer am Beginn der Neuzeit. Findest du die Darstellung der Suchergebnisse übersichtlich? September stach die Flotte von hier aus in See. Sie übernahmen die San Antonio. Weiterhin entdeckte Magellan den Seeweg westwärts nach Asien. Sie erkunden die Umgebung und jagen. Zu Ferdinand Magellans Zeiten, im Ferdinand Magellan Seefahrer Weltumsegler Entdecker

The king granted them: The expedition was funded largely by the Spanish Crown, which provided ships carrying supplies for two years of travel.

Several problems arose during the preparation of the trip, including lack of money, the king of Portugal trying to stop them, Magellan and other Portuguese incurring suspicion from the Spanish, and the difficult nature of Faleiro.

Faleiro, who had planned to accompany the voyage, withdrew prior to boarding. Antonio Pigafetta , a Venetian scholar and traveller, asked to be on the voyage, accepting the title of " supernumerary " and a modest salary.

He became a strict assistant of Magellan and kept an accurate journal. The only other sailor to report the voyage would be Francisco Albo, who kept a formal logbook.

Juan de Cartagena was named Inspector General of the expedition, responsible for its financial and trading operations.

There they remained more than five weeks. Finally they set sail on 20 September and left Spain. King Manuel I ordered a Portuguese naval detachment to pursue Magellan, but the explorer evaded them.

On 27 November the expedition crossed the equator ; on 6 December the crew sighted South America. On 13 December anchored near present-day Rio de Janeiro.

Although in , Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed the eastern most shores of Brazil for Portugal, Portugal did not maintain a permanent settlement there to protect its brazilwood monopoly the French were able to help themselves to the timber without interference.

Magellan's armada arrived without Portuguese notice. Afterwards, they continued to sail south along South America's east coast, looking for the strait that Magellan believed would lead to the Spice Islands.

For overwintering, Magellan established a temporary settlement called Puerto San Julian on March 30, On Easter April 1 and 2 , a mutiny broke out involving three of the five ship captains.

Magellan took quick and decisive action. Luis de Mendoza, the captain of Victoria , was killed by a party sent by Magellan, and the ship was recovered.

Juan de Cartagena, the head of the mutineers on the San Antonio, subsequently gave up. The Santiago was sent down the coast on a scouting expedition and was wrecked in a sudden storm.

All of its crew survived and made it safely to shore. Two of them returned overland to inform Magellan of what had happened, and to bring rescue to their comrades.

After this experience, Magellan decided to wait for a few weeks more before resuming the voyage with the four remaining ships. The strait is now named the Strait of Magellan.

On 28 November, the three remaining ships entered the South Pacific. Magellan named the waters the Mar Pacifico Pacific Ocean because of its apparent stillness.

Heading northwest, the crew reached the equator on 13 February On 6 March they reached the Marianas and Guam.

Pigafetta described the "lateen sail" used by the inhabitants of Guam, hence the name "Island of Sails", but he also writes the inhabitants "entered the ships and stole whatever they could lay their hands on", including "the small boat that was fastened to the poop of the flagship.

On 16 March Magellan reached the island of Homonhon in the Philippines , with crew left. Members of his expedition became the first Europeans to reach the Philippine archipelago.

Magellan relied on Enrique , his Malay servant and interpreter, to communicate with the native tribes. He had been indentured by Magellan in after the colonization of Malacca , and had accompanied him through later adventures.

On the morning of 27 April , Magellan sailed to Mactan with a small attack force. During the resulting battle against Lapu-Lapu's troops, Magellan was struck by a bamboo spear, and later surrounded and finished off with other weapons.

When morning came, forty-nine of us leaped into the water up to our thighs, and walked through water for more than two cross-bow flights before we could reach the shore.

The boats could not approach nearer because of certain rocks in the water. The other eleven men remained behind to guard the boats.

When we reached land, [the natives] had formed in three divisions to the number of more than one thousand five hundred people. When they saw us, they charged down upon us with exceeding loud cries The musketeers and crossbow-men shot from a distance for about a half-hour, but uselessly Recognizing the captain, so many turned upon him that they knocked his helmet off his head twice A native hurled a bamboo spear into the captain's face, but the latter immediately killed him with his lance, which he left in the native's body.

Then, trying to lay hand on sword, he could draw it out but halfway, because he had been wounded in the arm with a bamboo spear. When the natives saw that, they all hurled themselves upon him.

One of them wounded him on the left leg with a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, only being larger. That caused the captain to fall face downward, when immediately they rushed upon him with iron and bamboo spears and with their cutlasses, until they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true guide.

When they wounded him, he turned back many times to see whether we were all in the boats. Thereupon, beholding him dead, we, wounded, retreated, as best we could, to the boats, which were already pulling off.

Magellan provided in his will that Enrique, his interpreter, was to be freed upon his death. But after the battle, the remaining ships' masters refused to free the Malay.

Enrique escaped his indenture on 1 May with the aid of Rajah Humabon, amid the deaths of almost 30 crewmen. Pigafetta had been jotting down words in both Butuanon and Cebuano languages — which he started at Mazaua on 29 March and his list grew to a total of words.

He continued communications with indigenous peoples during the rest of the voyage. He intended to keep the body as a war trophy. Since his wife and child died in Seville before any member of the expedition could return to Spain, it seemed that every evidence of Ferdinand Magellan's existence had vanished from the earth.

The casualties suffered in the Philippines left the expedition with too few men to sail all three of the remaining ships. Reduced to Trinidad and Victoria , the expedition fled westward to Palawan.

They left that island on 21 June and were guided to Brunei , Borneo , by Moro pilots, who could navigate the shallow seas. They anchored off the Brunei breakwater for 35 days, where Pigafetta, an Italian from Vicenza , recorded the splendour of Rajah Siripada's court gold, two pearls the size of hens' eggs, porcelain from China, eyeglasses from Europe etc.

In addition, Brunei boasted tame elephants and an armament of 62 cannons, more than five times the armament of Magellan's ships.

Om resan lyckades skulle Magellan och Ruy Faleiro tjäna en femtedel av inkomsterna. Resan betalades till största del av den spanska kronan och rederiet Cristobal de Haro.

Den 20 november korsade flottan ekvatorn. De spanska kaptenerna kritiserade Magellan. Den 21 oktober seglade Magellans fem fartyg in i sundet som sedan skulle kallas Magellans sund.

De ankrade vid ön Cebu den 16 mars och blev väl mottagna av Raja Humabon. At this time, one battery went off-line, and the spacecraft was defined as power starved.

Communication was lost at 3: Contact was not re-established. Tracking operations were continued to The spacecraft should land on Venus by 1: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Magellan Artist's depiction of Magellan at Venus. RDRS was a much more capable instrument compared to previous missions. Launch of STS on May 4, The highly elliptical orbit of Magellan allowed the high-gain antenna to be used for radar data and communicating with Earth.

Map of the stereo imaging collected by Magellan during cycle 3. Reprojection of Maat Mons. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Aphrodite Terra , a rugged landscape. Pancake domes visible in Alpha Regio. Media related to Magellan radar imagery at Wikimedia Commons.

Magellan Venus Explorer's Guide. Robotic Exploration of the Solar System Part 2: Hiatus and Renewal — Retrieved 8 October Archived from the original on The unveiling of Venus.

The face of Venus: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Keith Raney; Laurence A. Radar Performance and Data Products".

American Association for the Advancement of Science. Arachnoid Atmosphere Dune fields Features. Geodynamics Geology Surface features Venus snow Venusquake.

Venus-crosser asteroid VE Colonization Inspiration Mars flyby Terraforming. Geological mapping of Venus Artificial objects on Venus.

Spacecraft missions to Venus. Vega 1 Vega 2. Italics indicates active current missions. Manned flights are indicated in bold text.

Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.

Retrieved from " https: Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July Articles needing additional references from October All articles needing additional references Articles containing video clips.

Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 23 September , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Artist's depiction of Magellan at Venus. Martin Marietta Hughes Aircraft. May 4, , October 13, , Legacy insignia for the Magellan mission, commemorating the deorbit of the spacecraft in The Radar System functioned in three modes: The instrument cycled through the three modes while observing the surface geology, topography, and temperature of Venus using the 3.

This data was used to characterize the surface temperature. Begin Venus primary mission operations. Begin Venus extended mission operations.

0 Comments

Add a Comment

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind markiert *